The flag of Australia is since 22 May 1909 the official national flag of the country.
Description of the Australian flag
The Australian flag is based on the Blue Ensign, and can be divided into three elements:
- The left upper canton bears the Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as a sign of the influence of this country to Australia and belonging to his Commonwealth.
- Links, under the Union Jack, a great white, siebenstrahliger Stern, the Commonwealth Star is called will. Six rays represent the original six states of Australia, the seventh for the territories.
- The right half is an arrangement of five other white, different size stars, representing the constellation of the Southern Cross. One is fünfstrahlig, the remaining four siebenstrahlig.
History of the Australian flag
The first recorded attempt to introduce a "national" flag for Australia, dates from between 1822 and 1823, and goes back to the two captains John Nicholson and John Bingle. The flag, known as the National Colonial Flag consisted of a white cloth with red cross of St. George, which at each end was wearing a white star that should be available for the Southern Cross. Some time later, a fifth star was also included, to represent the colonies of Australia. Bingle was outraged and wrote in his memoirs of 1881:
"The one who has added another star to another colony was of the"moving American thought" and had not understood the original intent, which was simply the emblem of our hemisphere, the Southern Cross."
The proper appearance of the National Colonial Flag is controversial. Discussed are versions that are based on the White Ensign (St. George's Cross with the Union Jack in the upper canton) and have star with five or eight points. It is undisputed that from this point the star, symbol of the Southern Cross, the other Australian flag symbolism dominated. In 1831 Captain John Nicholson beat New South Wales before a flag on the sea, the New South Wales Ensign. This flag was becoming increasingly popular in Australia and won as a federal symbol importance. The Federation movement, had with groups such as the Australian Natives Association and the Australian Federation League in the 1880s and 1890s, its rise, and set up this flag. The motto of the league said was:
"One people, one destiny, one flag"
The New South Wales Ensign is also referred to as the Australian Federation Flag or Ensign Australian and is for many the first real Australian flag also represents these there were numerous similar versions with four, five or six stars, which in turn from five to eight points passed.
Meanwhile, the star symbolism was done in many other flags in the history of Australia. In 1851 formed the Anti Transportation League, struggled against the other Zutransport of convicts to Australia and New Zealand. The five golden stars of the Southern Cross were at the same time for the colonial settlements in Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and New Zealand. On the white margin stood name and founding year of the league, and the name of the colony. The flag of the Anti Transportation League was very much like today's national flag and its influence can be seen on the current flag of Victoria.
Another important flag in the flag of Australia's history was known as the Eureka Stockade flag. She blew on the 1854 Eureka Stockade, the camp of some gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria. These miners, united under the leadership of Peter Lalors, sat down for the release of captive countrymen, universal suffrage, secret ballots, and many other reforms. Your flag flew only from 29 November 3rd to December, before the police violently broke up the camp. This blue and white flag with stars is now in the Museum Eureka Stockade Centre in Ballarat.
On 1 January 1901, the foundation day of the Commonwealth of Australia (Commonwealth of Australia), the country still had no official flag. The Australians therefore investigated by the creation of a new flag an identity without denying the loyalty to the British crown. In 1900 called the Evening Herald and later in October the Review of Reviews Australasia, both magazines from Melbourne, on a winning flag competition. On 29 April 1901 followed finally exclaimed one of the government competition, during its evaluation the submissions were taken into account in the Review of Reviews Australasia. The prize money increased by the use of the government and the Havelock Tobacco Company of £ 50 to £ 200, which for that time represented a significant amount. The competition does not fail to have its effect, and there were 32,823 designs posted. It was clear from the outset that it would amount to a flag that includes the Union Jack and the Southern Cross. Deviants flags were barely given chances to win. Apart from this symbolism contained many designs motifs from the local wildlife. The most unusual designs included a kangaroo that jumps through the Southern Cross, cricket playing Australian animals, a kangaroo sechsschwänziges for the six Australian states and a fat kangaroo, which points a gun at the Southern Cross.
The prize shared Finally, five participants whose proposals are very similar and differed only in details from each other. Selected was a dark blue flag with Union Jack (Blue Ensign) with a large Commonwealth star and five smaller arranged as the constellation of the Southern Cross stars. These winners flag was thus almost equal to the current and differs from this only in two points: the large central star (Commonwealth Star) still consisted of six prongs and the stars of the Southern Cross had originally increasingly five to nine teeth to the apparent magnitude within to take account of the constellation. This flag was the first third September 1901 hoisted at the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne.
About the flag proposal was never debated in the Australian Parliament. Edmund Barton, the first Prime Minister of Australia favored the "Australian Ensign" and sent them together with a simplified version of the flag of the competition for the selection of the King Edward VII on 20 Only January 1903, the government could announce the news that Edward VII approved the proposal as a competition official flag. On 2 June 1904, the Australian Parliament passed a resolution to fly the flag and gave her so the same status as the Union Flag in the UK. There were two versions of the flag: red for the merchant ships (Commonwealth red ensign) and blue for other uses (Commonwealth blue ensign), which led to some confusion in the flag. On 14 February 1954 Elizabeth II approved the Flags Act (CWTH, 1953). In Section 3, the Commonwealth Blue Ensign confirmed as the national flag.
The Commonwealth Star on 22 May 1909 supplemented by a jagged, which stands for the two territories. The flag of Australia, alongside the flag of Jordan to only two flags that carry a seven-pointed star.